Performance Analysis of Remanufacturing System Considering Inspection & Grading Policies, Sourcing Policies and Resource Policies Under Multiple Quality Scenarios: Towards Environmental Sustainability

Document Type : Original Manuscript


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect three factors (inspection & grading, sourcing policies and resource policies) on the cycle-time performance of a remanufacturing system under three different quality scenarios. The objectives were to analyse (i) the main effect of factors on the remanufacturing cycle-time under the given three quality scenarios, (ii) the interaction effect between these factors on the remanufacturing cycle-time under the given three quality scenarios; and (iii) the factors and corresponding levels that lead to shortest remanufacturing cycle-time. Simulation technique was used to model and simulate the remanufacturing system. Design of experiment method was used to design a mixed two-level and three-level full factorial for running the simulation experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse the output results from the simulation experiments. The ANOVA results show all three factors have significant effect on the remanufacturing cycle-time, regardless of the quality scenarios. The ANOVA results also suggest that sourcing policies has the most predominant effect when the quality scenario is average. Despite the different quality scenarios, the interaction between sourcing policies and resource policies have significant effects on the remanufacturing cycle-time, with predominant effect when the quality scenario is average. The implications for remanufacturing industry are there must be (i) inspection & grading policies, (ii) sourcing policies and (iii) resource policies, as these factors affect the remanuafacturing cycle-time. This work is novel because it considers three factors simultaneously and carries out the research by using simulation, design of experiment and ANOVA.


  • Results from the simulation experiment were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the main and interaction effects of the three factors on remanufacturing cycle-time. 
  • Results showed that for the good quality scenario, all factors have significant effect on remanufacturing cycle-time. For the interaction effect, the interaction between sourcing policies and resource policies significantly affect the remanufacturing cycle-time. 
  • Unlike the good quality scenario, there are two interaction effects that significantly affect the remanufacturing cycle-time; interaction between inspection policies and sourcing policies and the interaction between sourcing policies and resource policies.
  •  Finally, for the poor quality scenario, all three factors also have significant effect on the remanufacturing cycle-time. As for the interaction effects, similar to the average quality scenario, there are two interaction effects (between inspection policies & sourcing policies and between sourcing policies & resource policies) that have significant effects on the remanufacturing cycle-time.
  • Findings from this study suggest that regardless of the quality scenarios, all three factors have significant effects on remanufacturing cycle-time, with sourcing policies has the most predominant effect when the quality scenario is average. 


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