Determining The Relationship Between Adoption Factors of P3 Sweetener through Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Document Type : Original Manuscript


1 Centre for Technopreneurship Development, Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.

2 Monash Business School, Monash University, Level 9, Building H, Caulfield Campus, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East VIC 3145, Melbourne, Australia.

3 Faculty of Economics, Universitas Islam Batik Surakarta, Jl. Agus Salim No.10, Sondakan, Kec. Laweyan, Kota Surakarta, Jawa Tengah 57147, Indonesia.


P3 Sweetener is categorized as a nanomaterial-based health and wellness product. It is also known as a nanofood product, used to intensify the nutritional content, quality, and flavor of food. However, minimal research, interest, and engagement have led to limited knowledge discovery, uncertainty, and lack of understanding on this matter. Thus, the present study is intended to investigate the relationship between adoption factors of P3 Sweetener towards the purchase behavior of the consumers. A conceptual framework was constructed based on the Stimulus Organism Response (SOR) model developed by Mehrabian and Russell in 1974. An online questionnaire was distributed online via Google Forms for data collection. This quantitative study involved 390 P3 Sweetener users who responded to the questionnaire distributed in Johor, Malaysia, based upon the purposive sampling plan (homogenous sampling). After discarding the incomplete questionnaires, approximately 365 samples were considered suitable for further analysis, which was performed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Research result indicated that perceived benefit, motivation, and trust have significant relationships with purchase behavior. Also, it postulated that motivation was the most significant predictor for purchase behavior, affecting the psychological processes of the human mind and led to the willingness to purchase the P3 Sweetener. Despite the substantial contributions generated from the current study, limitations do exist. Firstly, the number of food industries related to nanofood in Malaysia is limited. Secondly, the data collection process was time-consuming. The appropriate samples and data collection took approximately six months to be completed due to their confidentiality. Lastly, this research was confined to Johoreans in the state of Johor, Malaysia. Finally, it indicated that this study is among the first to investigate the adoption factor of the P3 Sweetener product from the behavioral perspective. It also helps to comprehensively understand the adoption process of P3 Sweetener among users, especially in health and wellness industries in Malaysia. Lastly, this study helps to enrich the literature by identifying the adoption factors of P3 Sweetener in the health and wellness managerial context and provide recommendations for future studies.

Graphical Abstract

Determining The Relationship Between Adoption Factors of P3 Sweetener through Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling Approach


  • P3 Sweetener is categorized as a nanomaterial-based health and wellness product.
  • A conceptual framework was constructed based on the Stimulus Organism Response (SOR) model developed by Mehrabian and Russell in 1974.
  • This finding acknowledges practitioners that P3 Sweetener product was an alternative normal white sugar used to control blood sugar levels and helps to control obesity disorder.
  • This study is among the first to investigate the adoption factor of the P3 Sweetener product from the behavioral perspective.


Adeyeye, S. A. O., & Fayemi, O. E. (2019). Nanotechnology And Food Processing: Between Innovations and Consumer Safety. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology17(5), 435-452.
Ahmad, M. B., Ali, H. F., Malik, M. S., Humayun, A. A., & Ahmad, S. (2019). Factors Affecting Impulsive Buying Behavior with Mediating Role of Positive Mood: An Empirical Study. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences8(1), pp-17.
Ali, F., Kim, W. G., & Ryu, K. (2016). The Effect of Physical Environment on Passenger Delight and Satisfaction: Moderating Effect of National Identity. Tourism Management, 57, 213-224.
Ali, T., Alam, A., & Ali, J. (2021). Factors Affecting Consumers’ Purchase Behavior for Health and Wellness Food Products in an Emerging Market. Global Business Review22(1), 151-168.
Alkraiji, A.I., Jackson, T., & Murray, I. (2016). Factors Impacting the Adoption Decision of Health Data Standards in Tertiary Healthcare Organisations in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Enterprise Information Management 29(5):650–676.
Alongi, M., & Anese, M. (2021). Re-thinking Functional Food Development Through a Holistic Approach. Journal Of Functional Foods81, 104466.
Ashfaq, A., Khursheed, N., Fatima, S., Anjum, Z., & Younis, K. (2022). Application Of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging: Pros and Cons. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 100270.
Bagdoniene, L., & Zemblyte, J., (2009). Online Shopping Motivation Factors and Their Effect on Lithuanian Consumers. Economc and Management 14, 367–374.
Bagozzi, R. P. (1986). Principles of Marketing Management Science Research Associates. Wily Publications
Barrett, C.B. (2021). Overcoming Global Food Security Challenges Through Science and Solidarity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 103 (2), 422–447.
Bartolucci, C. (2017). Nanotechnologies for Agriculture and Foods: Past and Future. Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food Science. Weinheim: Wiley, 3-14.
Boholm, A., & Larsson, S., (2019). What Is the Problem? A Literature Review on Challenges Facing the Communication of Nanotechnology to the Public. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 21(4):1–21.
Bolek, S. (2020). Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Judgments About Food Safety: A Consumer Analysis. Trends in Food Science & Technology102, 242-248.
Brankov, T. P., Sibalija, T. Lovre, K., Cvijanovic, D., & Subic, J., (2013).The Impact of Biotechnology Knowledge on The Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food in Serbia. Romanian Biotechnological Letters 18(3), 8295–8306.
Bredahl, L. (2001). Determinants of Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions with Regard to Genetically Modified Foods – Results of a Cross-National Survey. Journal of Consumer Policy 24, 23–61.
Chang, H. H., Huang, C. Y., Fu, C. S., & Hsu, M. T. (2017). The Effects of Innovative, Consumer and Social Characteristics on Willingness to Try Nano-Foods: Product Uncertainty as A Moderator. Information Technology & People, 30(3), pp. 653-690.
Chaudhary, P., Fatima, F., & Kumar, A. (2020). Relevance of Nanomaterials in Food Packaging and its Advanced Future Prospects. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 30, 5180-5192.
Chin, W. W., Peterson, R. A., & Brown, P. S. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling in Marketing: Some Practical Reminders. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 16(4), 287–298.
Close, A. G., & Kukar-Kinney, M. (2010). Beyond Buying: Motivations Behind Consumers’ Online Shopping Cart Use. Journal of Business Research 63(9–10), 986–992.
Cruz-Lopes, L., Macena, M., & Guiné, R. P. (2021). Application Of Nanotechnologies Along the Food Supply Chain. Open Agriculture6(1), 749-760.
Cummings, C. L., Chuah, A. S., & Ho, S. S. (2018). Protection Motivation and Communication Through Nanofood Labels: Improving Predictive Capabilities of Attitudes and Purchase Intentions Toward Nanofoods. Science, Technology, & Human Values43(5), 888-916.
Dima, I. C., Man, M., & Kot, S. 2010. Use of Abraham Maslow’s Motivation Theory for Setting Consumers’ Satisfaction-Non-Satisfaction. Polish Journal of Management Studies 2(1):132–138.
Donovan, R. J., & Rossiter, J. R. (1982). Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychology Approach. Journal of Retailing, 58, 34‐57.
Duncan, T.V. (2011). The Communication Challenges Presented by Nanofoods. Nature Nanotechnology 6(11):683–688.
Dwivedi, Y. K., Ismagilova, E., Hughes, D. L., Carlson, J., Filieri, R., Jacobson, J., & Wang, Y. (2021). Setting The Future of Digital and Social Media Marketing Research: Perspectives and Research Propositions. International Journal of Information Management59, 102168.
Edelenbos, J., & Van Meerkerk, I. (2015). Connective Capacity in Water Governance Practices: The Meaning of Trust and Boundary Spanning for Integrated Performance. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 12, 25–29
Erdem, S. (2011). Food Safety, Perceptions and Preferences: Empirical Studies on Risks, Responsibility, Trust, and Consumer Choices. The University of Manchester (United Kingdom).
Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., & Davis, L. M. (2001). Atmospheric Qualities of Online Retailing: A Conceptual Model and Implications. Journal Of Business Research54(2), 177-184.
Farhadyar, A., Griguryan, K., Farhadyar, N., & Farhadyar, F. (2013). Customer Satisfaction Model in Nano Food Products using by Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) Approach. In Defect and Diffusion Forum, 334, 26-30.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research 18(1), 39–50.
Gao, L., & Bai, X. (2014). Online Consumer Behavior and Its Relationship to Website Atmospheric Induced Flow: Insights into Online Travel Agencies in China. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services21(4), 653-665.
Gao, L., Wang, S., Li, J., & Li, H. (2017). Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Individual’s Energy Saving Behavior in Workplaces. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 127, 107–113.
Gellman, M. D., & Turner, J. R. (2013). Encyclopaedia of Behavioural Medicine.
Haider, T., & Shakib, S. (2018). A Study on The Influences of Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behaviour. Business Studies Journal 9(1), 201.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, Mirror on The Wall: A Comparative Evaluation of Composite-Based Structural Equation Modelling Methods. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science 45, 616–632.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Hamdan, H. (2014). NanoMalaysia Programme (2011–2020): Engine of Growth for Innovative Malaysia. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience 9(1):2–8.
Han, C., Zhao, A., Varughese, E., & Sahle-Demessie, E. (2018). Evaluating Weathering of Food Packaging Polyethylene-Nano-Clay Composites: Release of Nanoparticles and Their Impacts. NanoImpact 9, 61–71.
Handford, C. E., Dean, M., Henchion, M., Spence, M., Elliott, C. T., & Campbell, K. (2015). Implications of Nanotechnology for the Agri-Food Industry: Opportunities, Benefits and Risks. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 40(2):226–241.
Handford, C. E., Dean, M., Henchion, M., Spence, M., Elliott, C. T., & Campbell, K. (2015). Implications of Nanotechnology for the Agri-Food Industry: Opportunities, Benefits and Risks. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 40(2), 226–241.
Hasim, M. A., Jabar, J., & Murad, A. M. (2019a). Investigating Factors Influencing Consumer Adoption of Nanofood towards Purchase Intention, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 28(15):133–139.
Hasim, M. A., Jabar, J., & Murad, A. M. (2019b). A Preliminary Research on Consumer Acceptance in Nanofood Towards Purchase Intention: A Pilot Research. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering8(2S3), 352-356.
Hasim, M. A., Jabar, J., Murad, A. M., & Ali, N. N. (2020). An Exploratory Factor Analysis on Adoption Factors of P3 Sweetener. Test Engineering and Management 82:9647-9654.
Hasmin, N. A., Mahmood, A., Azizun, N., Abd Kadir, N. H., & Matmin, J. (2021). Consumers ‘Awareness and Knowledge of Nanofood in Malaysia. Social and Management Research Journal18(2), 23-46.
Hasmin, N.A., Zainol, Z.A., Ismail, R., & Mahmood, A., (2020). Regulatory Challenges of Nanofood Labelling. Journal of Politics and Law 13(2):241-239.
He, X., & Hwang, H. M. (2016). Nanotechnology In Food Science: Functionality, Applicability, And Safety Assessment. Journal Of Food and Drug Analysis24(4), 671-681.
He, X., Deng, H., & Hwang, H. M. (2019). The Current Application of Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture. Journal Of Food and Drug Analysis27(1), 1-21.
Ho, S. S., Scheufele, D. A., & Corley, E. A. (2010). Making Sense of Policy Choices: Understanding the Roles of Value Predispositions, Mass Media, and Cognitive Processing in Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 12, 2703–2715.
Jibril, A. B., Kwarteng, M. A., Pilik, M., Botha, E., & Osakwe, C. N. (2020). Towards Understanding the Initial Adoption of Online Retail Stores in A Low Internet Penetration Context: An Exploratory Work in Ghana. Sustainability12(3), 854.
Kamarulzaman, N. A., Lee, K. E., Siow, K. S., & Mokhtar, M. (2020). Public Benefit and Risk Perceptions of Nanotechnology Development: Psychological and Sociological Aspects. Technology in Society62, 101329.
Karim, M. W., Chowdhury, M. A. M., Al Masud, M. A., & Arifuzzaman, M. (2021). Analysis of Factors influencing Impulse Buying behavior towards e-tailing sites: An application of SOR model. Contemporary Management Research17(2), 97-126.
Khalid, F. A., Jabar, J., Hasim, M. A., & Jamaris, N. W., (2020). What Tickles Your Fancy? The Case of Technology and Engineering Students Becoming Entrepreneurs. Asian Journal of Business and Accounting 13(1), 263–287.
Khezri, S., Kia, E. M., Seyedsaleh, M. M., Abedinzadeh, S., and Dastras, M., (2016). Application of Nanotechnology in Food Industry and Related Health Concern Challenges. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research 7(2):0976-2612.
Kim, D. M., & Lee, G. D. (2006). Introduction to the Technology, Applications, Products, Markets, R&D, and Perspectives of Nanofoods in the Food Industry. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science 11(4):348–357.
Kotler, P., Keller, K. L., Brady, M., Goodman, M., & Hansen, T. (2019). Marketing Management. Pearson Publications.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement 30(3), 607-610.
Lau, T.C., Chan, M.W., Tan, H.P., & Kwek, C. L. (2013). Functional Food: A Growing Trend among the Health Conscious. Asian Social Science 9(1):198.
Lautiainen, T. (2015). Factors Affecting Consumers’ Buying Decision in the Selection of a Coffee Brand. Saimaa University of Applied Sciences.
Laux, P., Tentschert, J., Riebeling, C., Braeuning, A., Creutzenberg, O., Epp, A., & Jakubowski, N., (2018). Nanomaterials: Certain Aspects of Application, Risk Assessment and Risk Communication. Archives of Toxicology 92:1–21.
Liu, M. T., Brock, J. L., Shi, G. C., Chu, R., & Tseng, T. H. (2013). Perceived Benefits, Perceived Risk, And Trust: Influences on Consumers' Group Buying Behaviour. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(2), 225-248.
Macnaghten, P., (2010). Researching Technoscientific Concerns in the Making: Narrative Structures, Public Responses, and Emerging Nanotechnologies. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 42(1):23–37.
Magnuson, B. A., Jonaitis, T. S., & Card, J. W. (2011). A Brief Review of The Occurrence, Use, And Safety of Food‐Related Nanomaterials. Journal Of Food Science76(6), 126-133.
Magnuson, B., Munro, I., Abbot, P., Baldwin, N., Lopez-Garcia, R., Ly, K. & Socolovsky, S. (2013). Review Of the Regulation and Safety Assessment of Food Substances in Various Countries and Jurisdictions. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A30(7), 1147-1220.
Mehrabian, A. & Russell, J. A., (1974). An Approach to Environmental Psychology. The MIT Press.
Memon, M. A., Ting, H., Cheah, J. H., Thurasamy, R., Chuah, F., & Cham, T. H. (2020). Sample Size for Survey Research: Review and Recommendations. Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling4(2), 1-20.
Neme, K., Nafady, A., Uddin, S., & Tola, Y. B. (2021). Application Of Nanotechnology in Agriculture, Postharvest Loss Reduction and Food Processing: Food Security Implication and Challenges. Heliyon7(12), 2305-8440.
Nile, S. H., Baskar, V., Selvaraj, D., Nile, A., Xiao, J., & Kai, G. (2020). Nanotechnologies In Food Science: Applications, Recent Trends, And Future Perspectives. Nano-micro letters12(1), 1-34.
Pandita, S., Mishra, H. G., & Chib, S. (2021). Psychological Impact of Covid-19 Crises on Students Through the Lens of Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) Model. Children and Youth Services Review120, 105783.
Park, J. S., & Stoel, L. D. (2018). How Background Music Affects Consumer Perception of Waiting Time? -A Mediating Role of Emotions. Journal of Fashion Business22(3), 16-29.
Petrescu, D. C., Vermeir, I., & Petrescu-Mag, R. M. (2020). Consumer Understanding of Food Quality, Healthiness, and Environmental Impact: A Cross-National Perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(1), 169.
Pidgeon, N., Harthorn, B. and Satterfield, T., (2011). Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication: Emerging Technologies, Emerging Challenges. Risk Analysis: An International Journal 31(11):1694–1700.
Pramanik, P., Krishnan, P., Maity, A., Mridha, N., Mukherjee, A., & Rai, V. (2020). Application Of Nanotechnology in Agriculture. In Environmental Nanotechnology, 4, 317-348.
Rahim, R. A., & Kassim, S. (2015). Nanotechnology Acceptance: A study of University Students in Malaysia. International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology, 4(2), 11-15.
Ravichandran, R., (2010). Nanotechnology Applications in Food and Food Processing: Innovative Green Approaches, Opportunities and Uncertainties for Global Market. International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Physics and Chemistry 1(2):72–96.
Reisch, L. A., Scholl, G., & Bietz, S., (2011). Better Safe Than Sorry’: Consumer Perceptions of And Deliberations on Nanotechnologies. International Journal of Consumer Studies 35(6), 644–654.
Roman, S., & Lacobucci, D., (2010). Antecedents and Consequences of Adaptive Selling Confidence and Behavior: A Dyadic Analysis of Salespeople and Their Customers. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science 38(3), 363–382.
Roosen, J., Bieberstein, A., Blanchemanche, S., Goddard, E., Marette, S., & Vandermoere, F., (2015). Trust and Willingness to Pay for Nanotechnology Food. Food Policy 52, 75–83.
Roosen, J., Bieberstein, A., Marette, S., Blanchemanche, S., & Vandermoere, F. (2011). The Effect of Information Choice and Discussion on Consumers' Willingness-To-Pay for Nanotechnologies in Food. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 365-374.
Sadeghi, R., Rodriguez, R. J., Yao, Y., & Kokini, J. L. (2017). Advances In Nanotechnology as They Pertain to Food and Agriculture: Benefits and Risks. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology8, 467-492.
Safitri, I., (2018). The Influence of Product Price on Consumers’ Purchasing Decisions. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research 7(2), 328–337.
Salvi, L. (2015). The EU's Soft Reaction to Nanotechnology Regulation in the Food Sector. Eur. Food & Feed L. Rev., 10, 186.
Schnettler, B., Crisóstomo, G., Mora, M., Lobos, G., Miranda, H., & Grunert, K. G. (2014). Acceptance Of Nanotechnology Applications and Satisfaction with Food-Related Life in Southern Chile. Food Science and Technology34(1), 157-163.
Sekhon, B. S. (2010). Food Nanotechnology – An Overview. Nanotechnology, Science and Applications 3:1–15.
Sekhon, B.S. (2014). Nanotechnology In Agri-Food Production: An Overview. Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 7, 31–53.
Shatkin, J. A., Abbott, L. C., Bradley, A. E., Canady, R. A., Guidotti, T., Kulinowski, K. M., Lofstedt, R. E., Louis, G., Macdonell, M., Maynard, A. D., Paoli, G., Sheremeta, L., Walker, N., White, R., & Williams, R., (2010). Nano Risk Analysis: Advancing the Science for Nanomaterials Risk Management. Risk Analysis 30(11):1680–1687.
Siegrist, M. (2010). Predicting The Future: Review of Public Perception Studies of Nanotechnology. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment16(4), 837-846.
Siegrist, M., Cousin, M. E., Kastenholz, H., & Wiek, A. (2007). Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology Foods and Food Packaging: The Influence of Affect and Trust. Appetite49(2), 459-466.
Siegrist, M., Stampfli, N., Kastenholz, H., & Keller, C. (2008). Perceived Risks and Perceived Benefits of Different Nanotechnology Foods and Nanotechnology Food Packaging. Appetite51(2), 283-290.
Singh, T., Shukla, S., Kumar, P., Wahla, V., Bajpai, V. K., & Rather, I. A., (2017). Application of Nanotechnology in Food Science: Perception and Overview. Frontiers in Microbiology 8, 1501.
Sodano, V., Gorgitano, M. T., Verneau, F., & Vitale, C. D. (2016). Consumer Acceptance of Food Nanotechnology in Italy. British Food Journal, 118(3), 714-733.
Sozer, N., & Kokini, J. L. (2009). Nanotechnology and Its Applications in The Food Sector. Trends Biotechnol. 27, 82–89.
Sridevi, P., Niduthavolu, S., & Vedanthachari, L. N., (2020). Analysis of Content Strategies of Selected Brand Tweets and Its Influence on Information Diffusion. Journal of Advances in Management Research 18(2):227–249.
Tan, W. L., & Goh, Y. N. (2018). The Role of Psychological Factors in Influencing Consumer Purchase Intention Towards Green Residential Building. International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, 11(5), pp. 788-807.
Tanaka, Y., Kitayama, M., Arai, S., & Matsushima, Y. (2015). Major Psychological Factors Affecting Consumer’s Acceptance of Food Additives: Validity of A New Psychological Model. British Food Journal, 117(11), pp. 2788-2800.
Van, T. T. T. (2016). Consumer Perceptions and Labelling Regimes as Determinants of the Market and Welfare Effects of Food Nanotechnology Innovations. Thesis and Dissertations, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Vandermoere, F., Blanchemanche, S., Bieberstein, A., Marette, S., & Roosen, J. (2011). The Public Understanding of Nanotechnology in The Food Domain: The Hidden Role of Views on Science, Technology, And Nature. Public Understanding of Science20(2), 195-206.
Verbeke, W., (2010). Consumer Reactions to Foods with Nutrition and Health Claims. Agro Food Industry Hi-Technology 21(6), 5–8.
Wang, H. (2015). Study of Influencing Factors on Consumer Online Impulse Buying. Management Science and Research, 4(2), 201-213.
Wang, J., Shen, M., & Gao, Z. (2018). Research on the Irrational Behavior of Consumers’ Safe Consumption and Its Influencing Factors. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(12), 2764.
Wee, C. S., Ariff, M. S. B. M., Zakuan, N., Tajudin, M. N. M., Ismail, K., & Ishak, N. (2014). Consumers Perception, Purchase Intention and Actual Purchase Behaviour of Organic Food Products. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research 3(2), 378.
Yawson, R. M., & Kuzma, J. (2010). Systems Mapping of Consumer Acceptance of Agrifood Nanotechnology. Journal of Consumer Policy33(4), 299-322.
Yeboah, A., Owusu-Prempeh, V., & Adjei, S. (2018). Perceived Risk Influence on Brand Made in Ghana Consumer Decision Making Towards Non-Perishable Products Category. International Journal of Business and Management13(5), 137.
Zhai, X., Wang, M., & Ghani, U. (2020). The SOR (Stimulus-Organism-Response) Paradigm in Online Learning: An Empirical Study of Students’ Knowledge Hiding Perceptions. Interactive Learning Environments28(5), 586-601.
Zhou, G., & Hu, W. (2018). Public Acceptance of And Willingness-To-Pay for Nanofoods in the US. Food Control89, 219-226.
Zhu, H., Yang, Z., Ou, C. X., Liu, H., & Davison, R. M. (2016). Investigating The Impacts of Recommendation Agents on Impulsive Purchase Behavior. Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Adelaide, 1(2), 1-12.